Neighboring tones (NT) that step downward and then back are called lower neighbors (LN), and neighboring tones that step upward and then back are called upper neighbors (UN).
In 2005, eighth-grader Anurag Kashyap of Poway, California, won the National Spelling Bee by correctly spelling appoggiatura. The thirteen-year-old won $30,000 in the competition, which just goes to show that it (literally) pays to know your music theory.
In the modern era, grace notes are usually performed as incidental notes (sometimes referred to as acciaccaturas) that are played very quickly and are immediately replaced by the more significant note that follows. These grace notes are written with a slash through the stem and flag. However, performance practices of earlier historical eras, such as the Baroque period, place greater rhythmic emphasis on grace notes as important ornamentations. Example 8.06 illustrates Baroque notation and performance of grace note appoggiaturas.
Anticipations (ANT) are always unaccented.
Changing tones (CT) are usually unaccented.
Fantasia and Fugue in C Minor, BWV 537: J.S. Bach, circa 1724. Public Domain.
Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, BWV 565 (fugue only): J.S. Bach, circa 1705. Public Domain.
see Harmonic Progression
see Harmonic Progression
Borrowed Chords.
in the following section.
Audio/video of various assignments:

Assignment 8.01a
Assignment 8.01b
Assignment 8.01c
Assignment 8.02a
Assignment 8.02b
Assignment 8.02c
Assignment 8.02d
Assignment 8.03a
Assignment 8.03b
Assignment 8.03c
Assignment 8.03d
Assignment 8.04a
Assignment 8.04b
Assignment 8.04c
Assignment 8.04d
Assignment 8.06
Assignment 8.07
Assignment 8.10
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